Hepatitis B Test Kit (HBV 5-in-1)

KIT UJIAN DARAH HEPATITIS B – 5 Dalam 1

The reagent is used for the qualitative detection and laboratory screening of hepatitis B virus markers
(HBsAg HBsAb HBeAg HBeAb HBcAb) in serum/plasma and whole blood.

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many people have no symptoms during infection. Some develop a rapid onset of sickness with vomiting, yellow skin, feeling tired, dark urine and abdominal pain. It may take 30 to 180 days for symptoms to begin. Cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop. These complications results in the death of 15 to 25% of those with chronic disease.
About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives, including 240 million to 350 million who have chronic infections.Over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B each year. The disease is now only common in East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where between 5 and 10% of adults are chronically infected.

The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people’s blood during childhood is the most frequent method by which hepatitis B is acquired in areas where the disease is common. In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection. Other risk factors include working in healthcare, blood transfusions, dialysis, living with an infected person, travel in countries where the infection rate is high, and living in an institution.

 

Storage and Expiry
Store as packaged in the sealed pouch at 4-30°C, avoid hot and sunshine, dry place, valid for 24 months.

DO NOT FREEZE. Some protective measures should be taken in hot summer and cold winter to avoid high temperature or freeze-thaw.

 

Sample Requirement
1. Collect venous blood a clean and dry container according to the standard method. Separate the serum or plasma for testing. EDTA, sodium citrate, sodium oxalate, heparin can be used as the anticoagulants
2. After collection, separate the serum and plasma as soon as possible, in order to avoid hemolysis. (only for serum/plasma test kit)
3. Use fresh samples. Samples may be stored at 2-8℃ for 3 days, and should be stored at -20 ℃ if cannot be tested immediately. Do not freeze and thaw the sample repeatedly.

 

Test Procedure
Instructions must be read entirely before taking the test. Allow the test device controls to equilibrate to room temperature for 30 minutes (20℃-30℃) prior to testing. Do not open the inner packaging until ready, it must be used in one hour if opened (Humidity: 20%~90%, Temp: 10℃-50℃)
1. Take off the outer packing, put the cassette onto the desk with the sample window up.
2. Open the alcohol pad, use the alcohol pad to disinfect the finger where to be prinked. (Note: Before blood collection, make sure the finger is clean and dry)
3. Open a lancet and prick the finger, collect blood with a pipette.
4. Drop 2 drops (50μl-60μl) of serum/plasma/whole blood vertically into each sample hole of cassette with a pipette. Add about 2 drop of buffer (55-60μl) sample buffer from the centrifuge tube with the other pipette into each sample hole of cassette.
5. Observe the test results immediately within 15-20 minutes, the result is invalid over 20 minutes.

hepatitis-b-test-kit-malaysia

 

Result Judgment
HBsAg HBsAb HBeAg:
POSITIVE: Two distinct red lines appear. One line should be in the control region (C) and the other line should be in the test region (T).
NEGATIVE: One red line appears in the control region(C). No apparent red or pink line appears in the test region (T).
INVALID: No red lines appear or control line fails to appear, indicating that the operator error or reagent failure. Verify the test procedure and repeat the test with a new testing device.

hepatitis-b-result1

 

 

HBeAb HBcAb:
POSITIVE: One red line appears in the control region(C). No apparent red or pink line appears in the test region (T).
NEGATIVE:. Two distinct red lines appear. One line should be in the control region (C) and the other line should be in the test region (T).
INVALID: No red lines appear or control line fails to appear, indicating that the operator error or reagent failure. Verify the test procedure and repeat the test with a new testing device.

hepatitis-b-result2

Precaution
1. The test result is invalid over 20 minutes, do not use after the expiration.
2. Samples may be stored at 2-8℃ for 3 days, and should be stored at -20 ℃ if cannot be tested immediately. Do not freeze and thaw the sample repeatedly.
3. The strength of the quality control line doesn’t indicate the quality problem of the reagent, a test result that is clearly visible demonstrates the reagent is effective.
4. Both deep and light color may occur during the test, even a very light brand during observation time should be judged as negative a result.
5. If the filtration speed is very slow or even no filtration occurs, please change the sample and test again.
6. Do not use other kinds of quality control sample to test the reagent. Components of different batches cannot be exchanged for use to avoid erroneous results.

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H. Pylori Test Kit

  • Results In: 15 – 20 Minutes
  • Test for H. Pylori antibody in plasma / whole blood qualitatively
  • Accurate results
  • Blood Test
  • Easy to use – everything included
  • Easy To Use Testing Procedure
  • Easy-to-read Color Band Signal with Built-in Test Control
  • High Sensitivity & Specificity
  • Certificate: CE
  • Type: Cassette

HELICOBACTER PYLORI

Helicobacter pylori, also known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. It is present in approximately one-half of the world’s population.

The vast majority of people infected with H. pylori has no symptoms and will never develop problems. However, H. pylori is capable of causing a number of digestive problems, including peptic ulcers and, much less commonly, stomach cancer. It is not clear why some people with H. pylori get these conditions and others do not.

To protect yourself from developing stomach ulcers, check your partner for belching, burping, burning in the stomach that gets more severe when the person is hungry and better after eating, a white-coated tongue, a chronic sore throat, and mouth odor. Any person with these symptoms should get a blood test for helicobacter, and if positive, he or she should get an upper GI series X ray to rule out stomach cancer also caused by helicobacter. The person can be cured by taking three medications for just one week. We can now add helicobacter infections and stomach ulcers to the list of sexually transmitted diseases.

 

H. PYLORI SYMPTOMS

Most individuals with chronic gastritis or duodenitis have no symptoms. However, some people develop more serious problems, including stomach or duodenal ulcers.

Ulcers can cause a variety of symptoms or no symptoms at all, with the most common ulcer symptoms including:

Pain or discomfort (usually in the upper abdomen)

Bloating

Feeling full after eating a small amount of food

Lack of appetite

Nausea or vomiting

Dark or tar-colored stools

Ulcers that bleed can cause a low blood count and fatigue

Less commonly, chronic gastritis causes abnormal changes in the stomach lining, which can lead to certain forms of cancer. It is uncommon to develop cancer as a result of H. pylori infection. Nevertheless, because so many people in the world are infected with H. pylori, it is considered to be an important cause of stomach cancer. People who live in countries in which H. pylori infection occurs at an early age are at greatest risk of stomach cancer

Most cases of H. pylori infection occur without any symptoms during childhood and are most commonly associated with poor sanitary hygiene — that is, not washing your hands thoroughly after using the toilet.

Is H Pylori Contagious From Person to Person?

H. pylori is commonly transmitted person-to-person by saliva

  • The H Pylori Bacteria can be transmitted from person-to-person with close contact. Even minor family contact like a mother kissing her baby or sharing drinking glasses can transmit the bacteria. This means that if one person in the family gets an H pylori infection, then the rest of the family is certainly going to be exposes.
  • Helicobacter pylori has been cultured from the saliva and mouth. Therefore, it may be possible to transmit H. pylori from an infected person’s mouth to the female vagina during oral-genital sex. Because H. pylori can survive on the squamous epithelium in the mouth, it may be possible for it to inhabit the squamous epithelium of the vaginal tract. Moreover, H. pylori may be able to colonize the vagina and survive in the mucus which envelopes the vaginal region. Further transmission can then occur via the vagina to the mouth of a non-infected male or female during additional oral-genital sexual encounters.
  • Studies have reported that sexual behaviour may be important in the transmission of H. pylori such as feceal-oral transmission between male homosexuals.

HOW TO TEST

Sample Requirement

1. The reagent can be used for the serum, plasma and whole blood samples.
2. A serum / plasma / whole blood sample must be collected in a clean and dry container. EDTA, sodium citrate, sodium oxalate, heparin can be used as the anticoagulants. Detect immediately after collecting blood. If blood coagulation occurs, serum samples are suggested to use.
3. Samples may be stored at 2-8℃ for 1 week prior to assay, and at -20 ℃ for 2 years. Frozen refrigerated samples should be recovered to room temperature before detection and thoroughly mixed. Repeat freeze and thaw for no more than 3 times. Samples exhibiting visible precipitates, stinkor muddy should not be used. Centrifuged, filtered, or allowed to settle to obtain a clear sample for testing.
4. Use the fresh whole blood samples.

 

Test Procedure

Instructions must be read entirely before taking the test. Allow the test device controls to equilibrate to room temperature for 30 minutes (20℃-30℃) prior to testing. Do not open the inner packaging until ready, it must be used in one hour if opened (Humidity: 20%~90%, Temp: 10℃-50℃)
1. Take off the outer packing, put the cassette onto the desk with the sample window up.
2. Open the alcohol pad, use the alcohol pad to disinfect the finger where to be prinked. (Note: Before blood collection, make sure the finger is clean and dry)
3. Open a lancet and prick the finger, collect blood with a pipette.
4. Serum / Plasma: Drop 1 drop (25μl) of serum or plasma vertically into the circular groove of cassette. Add about 2 drops ( 80μl-100μl) of sample buffer from the centrifuge tube with a pipette into the circular groove of cassette. Whole blood: Drop 2 drops (50μl) of whole blood vertically into the circular groove of cassette. Add about 2 drops of (80μl-100μl) sample buffer from the centrifuge tube with a pipette into the circular groove of cassette.
5. Observe the test results immediately within 15-20 minutes, the result is invalid over 20 minutes.

 

Result Judgment

POSITIVE: Two distinct red lines appear. One line should be in the control region (C) and the other line should be in the test region (T).
NEGATIVE: One red line appears in the control region(C). No apparent red or pink line appears in the test region (T).
INVALID: No red lines appear or control line fails to appear, indicating that the operator error or reagent failure. Verify the test procedure and repeat the test with a new testing device.

h-pylori-results

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Chlamydia Test Kit

  • Results In: 10 Minutes
  • Test for Chlamydia Trachomatis Antigen
  • Accurate results
  • Swab sample
  • Easy to use – everything included
  • Easy To Use Testing Procedure for both Men & Women
  • Easy-to-read Color Band Signal with Built-in Test Control
  • High Sensitivity & Specificity
  • Certificate: CE
  • Type: Cassette

Chlamydia Test Kit is a special urethra swab test kit designed to detect chlamydia infection. This kit is easy to use at home and gives you a high clinical accuracy result in just 15 minutes. Chlamydia is an infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Chlamydia can infect the penis, vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, eye, or throat.

The incubation period of Chlamydia is several days to several months, usually 1 to 3 weeks.

In fact, 70% to 80% of women and 50% of men among the infected patients show no clinical symptoms, so that it is important to have a laboratory diagnosis.

Chlamydia symptoms in women
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge that may have an odor.
  • Bleeding between periods.
  • Painful periods.
  • Abdominal pain with fever.
  • Pain when having sex.
  • Itching or burning in or around the vagina.
  • Pain when urinating.
Chlamydia symptoms in men include:
  • White, cloudy or watery discharge from the tip of the penis;
  • Pain, discomfort or a ‘burning sensation’ when urinating;
  • Inflammation, tenderness and pain in and around the testicles.

 

 

 

Specimen Strengths Weaknesses
Urethral swab Quality of specimen can be assured Not easy to collect and painful
Urine Easy to collect Cannot culture the organism
Semen Routinely collected for semen analysis Inhibiting to cell culture and sometimes to NAATs
Serum Relatively easy to collect Not from the infection site

 

 

 

chlamydia-test-kit-results

 

What To Think About

If a chlamydia infection is suspected, do not have sexual intercourse until the test results have come back. If you have a chlamydia infection, do not have sexual intercourse for 7 days after the start of treatment. Your sex partner(s) should also be treated for a chlamydia infection so that you don’t get reinfected and so that others don’t get infected.

Other sexually transmitted infections may be present at the same time as chlamydia. So it is important to be tested and treated for all STDs. Chlamydia as well as other STDs can also increase the chance of getting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An HIV test may be offered at the same time as a test for chlamydia or other STDs.

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