3rd generation HIV Test vs 4th generation HIV Test

A lot of people do not quite know what’s the difference between 3rd generation vs 4th generation HIV Test Kit.

How HIV tests work

Third generation HIV tests (ELISA antibody)

When you become infected with HIV, your body will start to produce specific antibodies (proteins that attach to the virus to try and destroy it). An HIV antibody test looks for these antibodies in your blood, saliva or urine. If these antibodies are found, it means you are infected with HIV. This test is only accurate after three months, because this is how long it takes your body to produce enough antibodies for it to show up in a test.

However, First Response HIV Test Kit says you can test after 3 to 4 weeks of exposure. While in my own opinion, to be on the safer side, do a retest after 3 months, 6th month and 1 year later. You will get a lot of opinions from internet though.

 

**90 days is the usual safety window period for HIV antibodies test (which checks ONLY for antibodies and NOT for P24 antigen).

 

Fourth generation HIV tests (ELISA combined antigen/antibody)

Fourth generation tests look for HIV antibodies, but also for something called p24 antigens. The p24 antigens are part of HIV itself, so you have a lot of these in your blood in the first few weeks after infection. This is why you are most infectious to others in this period too. Fourth generation tests can detect (p24 HIV viral protein) from 11 days to 1 month after you have been infected.

[We all already know that the HIV antibody test becomes quite reliable at 4 weeks and as good as conclusive at 6 weeks. Although most health authorities still recommend a 3 months window period. So putting these 2 tests together gives you a very powerful tool to diagnose HIV infection in as little as 3 weeks. When the level of P24 antigen peaks in the blood gives us maximum accuracy.]

Note: The 4th generation HIV test is also known as DUO or COMBO because it looks for hiv 1/2 antibodies, and also the p24 antigen. The p24 antigen is only present in the first two or three weeks. Once enough antibodies start to be produced, the p24 antigen disappears.

**P24 antigen is usually detectable by 28 days, the time when antibodies may still be not detectable. So DUO will check for both antibodies and P24 Antigen and hence will help in possible earlier diagnosis of HIV at the time when antigen will be detectable, but not the antibodies. Once the antibodies start producing, P24 antigen will usually start disappearing and again as DUO will also check for antibodies so it will also be again helpful that time. That is why it is also called Sandwich test.

 

HIV test What do they test for? What is the window period? How long for the results? Reliability
Third generation antibody tests HIV antibodies 3 months  Between 1 to 7 days High
Fourth generation antibody & P24 antigen tests HIV antibodies and p24 viral proteins (antigens) 11 days – 1 month Between a few days and a few weeks High

 So What’s the difference between these 3rd and 4th generation?

The median detection time was demonstrated to be 7 days earlier (range 0 to 20 days) compared to 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay antibody tests. Meaning you don’t have to wait too long to get the results. As for the pricing, 4th generation will be more expensive compare to 3rd generation.

**Fourth generation tests have been widely used in Europe for many years, although a handful of clinics, still use third generation despite current guidelines.

About HIV Seroconversion

(…HIV seroconversion is the time in which a person first develops antibodies for HIV. They will not yet test positive on an HIV antibody test. The word just means that your sero status is converting from being HIV antibody negative to HIV antibody positive)

Research shows that 97 percent of people will have produced enough antibodies to accurately test positive within three months. Sometimes, it takes people as long as six months to test positive, but this is rare.

Because everyone’s window period is different — and because the tests are different — it’s recommended that you test before the three month mark, you get re-tested for HIV after three months if you got a negative test result at first. Or, people who are exposed to HIV frequently may prefer to get tested with increased regularly — say, every few months.

 

What about “delayed Seroconversion” which is rare case?…

The CDC website states

” Most people will develop detectable antibodies within 2 to 8 weeks (the average is 25 days).Therefore, if the initial negative HIV test was conducted within the first 3 months after possible exposure, repeat testing should be considered >3 months after the exposure occurred to account for the possibility of a false-negative result. Ninety-seven percent of persons will develop antibodies in the first 3 months following the time of their infection. In very rare cases, it can take up to 6 months to develop antibodies to HIV”

 

What doctors says about this “rare delayed Seroconversion”, what causes this to happen…

It is extremely rare for a person to take any longer then 6 months to develop detectable antibodies.

In case a individuals have conditions that result in late production of antibodies – testing after 12 weeks or after 6 months is advised. Most of these conditions are rare genetic diseases – and do present much earlier in life and individuals will always be sick with respiratory and diarrheal infections throughout their life.

Such disorders include :

1. Disorders of antibody production: Hypogammaglobulinemia ; X-linked agammaglobulinemia ; IgA deficiency ; IgG deficiency ; IgM deficiency ; Hyper IgM syndrome ; Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome • Hyper-IgE syndrome

2. Common variable immunodeficiency

3. Cell-mediated (T) : Di George’s syndrome ; Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
Severe combined (B+T) x-linked: X-SCID ; Adenosine deaminase deficiency

4. Conditions resulting in : Leukopenia, Lymphocytopenia , Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia

5. Complement deficiency

“Your tests doe at 4 months post exposure, might be conclusive.”

 

So What DO YOU THINK? How often should you re-test HIV Test Kit?

 

Types of Drugs for Oral Herpes

Oral Herpes is cause by herpes simplex virus. Is an infection of the lips, mouth or gums. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). You will be able to detect this small, painful blisters also known as cold sores or fever blisters. Other name for oral herpes is herpes labialis. The earlier you detect yourself, the faster you will be able to get rid of it. Herpes Blood test is called Herpes lgM test, it can give you results as early as a week of exposure. It’s a blood test and results are fast.

Most people don’t know they are infected with herpes virus. Because after the first infection, the virus goes dormant meaning it goes to sleep mode. Sometimes, it wakes up (reactivates itself), then you’ll notice your lips blisters. These cold sores comes and goes and the only way to stop it is to know your herpes status and get medication from your doctor.

Herpes virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes. However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes.

Herpes viruses spread easily. You can catch this virus if you:

  • Have close personal contact with someone who is infected
  • Touch something that is infected with the herpes virus, such as infected razors, towels, dishes, and other shared items

Parents may spread the virus to their children during regular daily activities.

Symptoms

Some people get mouth ulcers when they first come into contact with HSV-1 virus. Others have no symptoms. Most of the time, symptoms usually occur in children between 1 and 5 years old.

Symptoms may be mild or severe. They often appear within 1 to 3 weeks after you come into contact with the virus. They may last up to 3 weeks.

Warning symptoms include:

  • Itching of the lips or skin around the mouth
  • Burning near the lips or mouth area
  • Tingling near the lips or mouth area

Before blisters appear, you may have:

  • Sore throat
  • Fever
  • Swollen glands
  • Painful swallowing

Blisters or a rash may form on your:

  • Gums
  • Lips
  • Mouth
  • Throat

Many blisters are called an “outbreak.” You may have:

  • Red blisters that break open and leak
  • Small blisters filled with clear yellowish fluid
  • Several smaller blisters that grow together into a large blister
  • A blister that gets yellow and crusty as it heals, eventually turning into pink skin

Symptoms may be triggered by:

  • Menstruation or hormone changes
  • Being out in the sun
  • Fever
  • Stress
  • Low immune

If the symptoms return later, they are often less severe.

DRUGS FOR HERPES LABIALIS (ORAL HERPES)

Top companies drug manufacturer for Herpes are:
GSK
Novartis
Teva
Mylan
Cadila
Apotex
Daewoong Pharmaceutical
Livzon
Luoxin
Med shine
Bayer (Campho Phenique)
Blistex
Kelun Group
Hikma
Haiwang
Carmex
Cipher

Types of Drugs Name for Oral Herpes include:
Valacyclovir
Aciclovir
Famciclovir
Docosanol
Other

Methods of Application of Herpes Drugs include:
External Use
Oral
Injection

Details of Herpes Drugs types:
Daily oral acyclovir or valacyclovir may help prevent herpes simplex labialis
Valacyclovir reduces both healing time and duration of pain,
Famciclovir reduces both in one dosage form but not another, and
Acyclovir reduces only pain duration

Several topical medications (acyclovir,penciclovir, docosanol) modestly decrease healing time and pain duration—typically by less than a day—and require multiple doses per day.

 

Swimming Pool pH Level

Do you know : Unbalanced water chemical levels will not allow a pool’s sanitizer to effectively kill bacteria and may cause skin or eye irritations if overly acidic. Testing the water before using it can be done with Macherey Nagel pH Test Strips. This will include Pool and Spa.

Therefore, next time if you’re going to the pool, remember to bring ph test paper and test it. It’s small and easy to test when you’re at the pool. If the water is too acidic, inform the pool management or simply get out of the pool as it will irritate your skin and eyes.

This is especially important when you’re bringing your kids or baby to the pool. Always Always check the ph water balance.

https://www.aileenwo.com/products/macherey-nagel-ph-test-papers-ph-fix-indicator-sticks-ph-0-14/

Std are curable 

STD Screening is a very personal thing for anyone. Everyone who is sexually active should test yourself frequent to ensure you and your partner are not infected. The earlier you treat the symptom, the better for you to heal faster.

Types of STDS

Gonorrhea and Chlamydia:

These two infections are very common and are often test together because they’re screened for at the same time mostly. However, the infection can be missed at some time, especially in female because the bacteria that causes them sometimes doesnt always create symptoms. These infections are caused by oral, anal, or genital contact with someone else who has an infection.

Syphilis:

Syphilis is a type of bacterial infection that passes from one person to another by orally or anal, or genital contact with infectious person, some are painless sores that are present during the beginning stages of the infection.

Herpes:

There are 2 strains of the virus presence in herpes namely type 1 and type 2.

Type 1 is associated with oral herpes (cold sores) while type 2 herpes virus with genital herpes, but according to recent research it has shown that most genital infections are commonly caused by type 1. A person may have either strain of the virus but never show any symptoms, or may have an “outbreak” with painful sores near his or her mouth, genitals, or anus.
Herpes however are most commonly transmitted through contact with infectious sores, but in maybe also transmitted even if the infected person doesn’t have any symptoms at all. Because a person can be contagious even though no lesions are present, taking extra precautions only when there are visible lesions may not prevent spread of the infection to the partner.


HIV: 

This viral infection is transmitted via blood (e.g, in intravenous drug abusers who share needles with infected persons) or sexually, by having unprotected anal or vaginal sex. Rarely it can be transmitted by contact with other body fluids.

Hepatitis B:

Hepatitis B is also a viral infection, transmitted by blood or semen, that can cause liver disease or liver cancer. Hepatitis b liver cancer can spread very rapid therefore if you’re detected earlier, pills to control these hepatitis b virus are available.

Test yourself now and know your heal status. STDS are curable!

Alcohol Swab

Size: 6cm x 6cm (Large) 20 pieces alcohol swab at RM28

Size: 6cm x 3cm (Regular) 20 pieces alcohol swab at RM25

  • USA Technology
  • Condition: New
  • Goood quality
  • Reputable brand
  • Durable
  • Value for money
  • Suitable for skin cleaning prior to subcutaneous injections and the taking of capillary blood samples.
  • One pad with isopropyl alcohol 75%
  • Direction: Cleaning required The area, Discard after single use.
  • USA Technology
  • Condition: New
  • Goood quality
  • Reputable brand
  • Durable
  • Value for money
  • Suitable for skin cleaning prior to subcutaneous injections and the taking of capillary blood samples.
  • One pad with isopropyl alcohol 75%
  • Direction: Cleaning required The area, Discard after single use.

Spring Loaded Safety Lancet (Yellow – 26G)

  • RM3.00 for one safety lancet.
  • Sterile disposable lancet
  • CE marked
  • Color: Yellow
  • Size: 26G

Medical Spring Loaded Sterilized Disposable Safety Lancet

  • Single-use safety lancing device
  • Small, convenient and perfect for diabetic, HIV, STDs, all blood testing.
  • Safety needle is not exposed before or after use. Self-contained, disposable safety lancet.
  • Ease of Use:  One-step procedure, No arming required.
  • Activated by pressure on finger. Easy to use and Fast. Minimize pain.
  • Efficient:  High-speed delivery and penetration method minimizes patient pain and clinician error
  • Latex-free: Hypo-allergenic

How to use Safety Lancet

Save

Spring Loaded Safety Lancet (Orange- 28G)

  • RM3.00 for 1 lancet
  • Sterile disposable lancet
  • CE marked
  • Color: Orange
  • Size: 28G

Medical Spring Loaded Sterilized Disposable Safety Lancet

  • Single-use safety lancing device
  • Small, convenient and perfect for diabetic, HIV, STDs, all blood testing.
  • Safety needle is not exposed before or after use. Self-contained, disposable safety lancet.
  • Ease of Use:  One-step procedure, No arming required.
  • Activated by pressure on finger. Easy to use and Fast. Minimize pain.
  • Efficient:  High-speed delivery and penetration method minimizes patient pain and clinician error
  • Latex-free: Hypo-allergenic
  • Ergonomic Design, Easy to Hold

How to use lancet

Save

Twist Blood Lancet

  • RM22/box (Consist of 50 Twist Lancet in a box)
  • Twist Blood Lancet 50s / box
  • Universal design fits most lancing devices.
  • Virtually painless sampling.
  • Size 26G is more suitable to collect 2 to 3 drops of blood, while Size 28G sufficient if only 1 drop of blood is needed.
  • Using size 28G, opening would heals more faster.
  • High grade medical Plastic
  • Usage Single Use Only
  • Tri-Bevel Tip
  • Sterile
  • Consistent depth penetration.
  • Universal design fits most lancing devices.
  • Virtually painless sampling.

Pen Lancet

  • Sterilance On Call Auto Pen Lancing Device. Pen Lancet Needle for blood.
  • 5 depth settings push button sprung auto lancing device
  • Takes universal sterile tip twist lancets.
  • Great quality Auto Lancing device for all blood rapid test kits.
  • Clear cap for Alternate Site Testing
  • Convenient lancet ejector
  • 6 adjustable depth settings
  • For self testing and professional use.
  • Sterilance On Call Auto Pen Lancing Device. Pen Lancet Needle for blood.
  • 5 depth settings push button sprung auto lancing device
  • Takes universal sterile tip twist lancets.
  • Great quality Auto Lancing device for all blood rapid test kits.
  • Clear cap for Alternate Site Testing
  • Convenient lancet ejector
  • 6 adjustable depth settings
  • For self testing and professional use.

Panduan Ujian HIV untuk Bakal Pengantin

Akad nikah adalah mudah dan saat paling bahagia dalam hidup anda dan bakal isteri. TAPI adakah anda betul-betul bersedia untuk saat itu?

Kalau ditanya kepada setiap insan, adakah anda akan berkahwin? Jawapannya sudah tentu ya, dan mungkin ketika ini ada yang sedang dilamun cinta, ada yang sudah bertunang dan akan melangsungkan perkahwinan mereka tidak lama lagi. Bagi anda yang akan melangsungkan perkahwinan, tahniah saya ucapkan. Tetapi…

Adakah anda mahu sebelum majlis perkahwinan anda khususnya majlis akad nikah, mak dan bapa mertua anda ataupun isteri anda / suami anda mengetahui status HIV anda? Anda pun tidak pasti sama ada anda kena HIV ataupun tidak. Bayangkan, kalau result test HIV positive, isteri anda dapat tahu? Macam mana?

Saya rasa anda pasti nak jawapan secepat mungkin sebelum test di klinik kerajaan. Tak la surprise semua orang. Kerana jika peristiwa memalukan ini berlaku, ia akan kekal disebut saudara mara dan masyarakat.

Rugilah jika peristiwa yang berlaku cuma sekali seumur hidup ini ada insiden-insiden yang tidak disengajakan serta memalukan anda dan keluarga anda. Fikir-fikirkan…

Dapatkan jawapan secepat mungkin dapatlah anda relax sikit masa ambil ujian dengan bakal isteri / suami anda di klinik nanti.

 

Borang Ujian Saringan HIV

1.  Bakal pengantin boleh mendapatkan borang ujian saringan HIV di Jabatan  Agama Islam berhampiran anda.
2.  Bayaran RM10 dikenakan bagi setiap permohonan Ujian Saringan HIV.  (Bayaran adalah berbeza mengikut negeri)
3.  Borang Ujian Saringan HIV hendaklan dilengkapkan dan dibawa ke klinik  kesihatan yang telah disenaraikan bagi menjalani Ujian HIV 1 & 2.

 

Ujian Saringan HIV Di Klinik Kesihatan Kerajaan

1.  Bakal pengantin hendaklah hadir ke klinik kesihatan yang disenaraikan dengan membawa Borang Ujian Saringan beserta resit.
2.  Sekiranya keputusan ujian TIDAK AKTIF, bakal pengantin boleh meneruskan proses permohonan berkahwin.
3.  Sekiranya keputusan adalah AKTIF, pemohon perlu menjalani ujian lanjut bagi pengesahan HIV. Keputusan ujian dikeluarkan dalam masa 2 minggu.
4.  Pegawai perubatan akan mencatat keputusan dalam borang dan dimasukkan dalam sampul surat SULIT untuk diserahkan kepada bakal pengantin.
5.  Setiap kes HIV POSITIF, perlu dirujuk kepada Pakar Perubatan Keluarga atau Klinik Penyakit Berjangkit.
6.  Keputusan tersebut sah laku dalam tempoh 6 bulan dari tarikh ujian dijalankan.

Permohonan Kebenaran Berkahwin Di Jabatan Agama Islam

1.  Permohonan Kebenaran Berkahwin yang telah mendapat pengesahan dari Penolong Pendaftar hendaklah dihantar semula ke Jabatan Agama Islam di tempat masing-masing bersama dengan keputusan Ujian Saringan HIV yang telah disahkan oleh Pegawai Perubatan Kerajaan.
2.  Sekiranya keputusan ujian adalah NEGATIF, proses permohonan kebenaran berkahwin akan diteruskan.
3.  Sekiranya keputusan HIV adalah POSITIF, maka:
a)  Pemohon perlu menjalani sesi khidmat nasihat di Jabatan Agama sebelum meneruskan permohonan kebenaran berkahwin.
b)  Pemohon, pasangan dan keluarga akan diberi pendedahan tentang implikasi HIV.
c)  Pemohon dan pasangan akan diminta membuat keputusan sama ada mahu meneruskan perkahwinan atau sebaliknya.
d)  Sekiranya pemohon dan pasangan membuat keputusan untuk meneruskan perkahwinan, maka permohonan kebenaran berkahwin akan diproses.
e)  Pemohon dan pasangan perlu merujuk kepada Pakar Perubatan Keluarga dan Klinik Penyakit Berjangkit untuk penjagaan kesihatan seterusnya.

Save