1. Pathogen — A biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host organism. The most common pathogens to affect humans are bacteria (e.g. salmonella), viruses (e.g. influenza), protozoa (e.g. malaria), fungi (e.g. yeast), and parasites (e.g. tapeworm).
  2. Virus — Unlike bacteria, a virus cannot reproduce on its own. It must get inside a host cell and hijack its systems to do that. Some viruses can exist inside the body in a dormant state where it reproduces at a low level causing few clinical symptoms. The same virus can switch on to an active state marked by aggressive reproduction in the order of billions of virus copies per day. While many drugs exist to kill bacteria (antibiotics), very few antiviral drugs are known.
  3. HIV — The acronym for human immunodeficiency virus. Like influenza or hepatitis, it is a virus that infects humans. HIV is exceptional in three ways: (1) it mainly targets certain cells of the immune system, (2) it is lethal to the host cell and (3) it mutates very rapidly.
  4. HIV types subtypes and CRFs — HIV is not just one virus, it can be divided into two major types, HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 viruses may be further divided into four groups, M, N, O and P. The HIV-1 group M viruses are the most common ones, and have caused more than 90% of all known HIV infections. Group M can be further subdivided into subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). There are nine group M subtypes and more than 50 CRFs known today. As the virus continues to spread and mutate, new subtypes and CRFs will appear.
  5. Immune system — The human immune system has three main lines of defense: physical, innate and adaptive. Physical barriers like skin and mucous membranes keep pathogens from entering the body in the first place. They are the first line of defense. If a pathogen breaches these barriers then the innate immune system provides an immediate but nonspecific response such as inflammation and fever. If the intruder survives the innate response then the adaptive system will start to study the pathogen over the course of the infection to find its weak point and eliminate it. It will use immunological memory to identify this pathogen should it return and mount faster and stronger attacks against it.
  6. T-cells — Many different types of cells are involved in the immune response. One group of cells that is vital to the immune system are called T-cells. T-cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. There are several different types of T-cells, each playing a different role in the body’s immune response.
  7. CD4 cells — A type of T-cell, also known as “Helper T-cells.” Helper T-cells regulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses and help determine which types of immune responses the body will make to a particular pathogen. These cells do not kill infected cells or pathogens directly. Instead, they are the brains of the operation, controlling the immune response by directing other cells to perform these tasks. If the CD4 cells were lost, the body would be completely vulnerable because the other systems of cells wouldn’t know what to do. HIV mainly targets CD4 cells. The virus gets inside the cell and uses it to produce more viruses before destroying its host. When HIV is active, an exponential effect takes place. It is only a matter of time before the CD4 population is rendered to such a low level that they are completely ineffectual. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4 cells through three main mechanisms: 1) the virus killing its host cell directly; 2) increased rates of self-destruction (apoptosis) in infected cells; and 3) killing of infected CD4 cells by immune cells (CD8 lymphocytes) that recognize and kill infected cells.
  8. CD4 count — Measures the number of CD4 T-cells in the blood to gauge the strength of the immune system in the presence of HIV infection. CD4 has been the primary indicator doctors have used to monitor the overall condition of the patient’s immune system. The test is usually simple to perform and relatively cheap to administer which has lead to its widespread use. The test has two main limitations with regard to HIV management. There are many factors, other than HIV activity, that affect the amount of CD4 T-cells present in the blood at any given time. So the doctor cannot be sure if the CD4 value is caused by HIV activity or other factors. Second, it can take up to 6 months for HIV activity to be reflected in the CD4 count.
  9. Viral load — While CD4 measures the body’s reaction to the virus, viral load measures the number of virus particles in the blood directly. Measurements are usually expressed in number of RNA copies per milliliter of blood. A low viral load is usually between 200 to 500 copies, depending on the type of test used. This result indicates that HIV is not actively reproducing and that the immediate risk of disease progression is low because the HIV is in its dormant state. A high viral load can be anywhere from 5,000 to 10,000 copies and can range as high as one million or more. This means the virus is active and the disease will progress. The viral load test is a more reliable indicator of viral activity than the CD4 test and a more reliable indicator of disease progression. Historically, the test has had one main drawback: While a mainstay of treatment in developed nations, it has been more difficult to perform in resource-limited settings — the delicate test equipment requires laboratory conditions that are uncommon in resourcelimited clinics.
  10. AIDS — When HIV has diminished a person’s CD4 T-Cell count to less than 200 cells/µl (bringing the proportion of CD4 T-Cells to other lymphocytes below 14%) then the person’s immune system is considered to be incapable of mounting a viable defense against invading pathogens. HIV-infected people in this position are classified medically as having acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is the end game of HIV infection. Just as the virus kills the host CD4 cell, the disease kills the host organism by leaving it entirely vulnerable to the millions of pathogens that assail the body each day. Once the HIV patient gets to this level of immunological vulnerability, they will typically die of opportunistic infections or tumors within 9.2 months if left untreated.
  11. ARVs — An acronym that stands for antiretroviral drugs. These are the drugs used to manage HIV infection. While there is no cure for HIV, these drugs have been successful in slowing the disease’s progression by interfering with the virus at different stages in its development. There are over twenty ARVs on the market today, but only a handful of these are available to patients in developing nations. In most of these countries, there are two main combinations of drugs given to patients, referred to as first line and second line treatment. The drugs used in second line treatment are around eight times more expensive than first line treatment — an important consideration in resource-limited environments. Today, the prevailing logic is to start first line ARV treatment as soon as HIV becomes active, which can be several years from the time of infection. To avoid creating and spreading resistant strains of HIV, it is further suggested to stop first line ARV treatment as soon as the patient stops responding to it and switch to second line. Eventually this too will fail as the virus develops resistance to second line treatment. For most patients in resource-limited settings, once this point is reached no further treatment is available to hold HIV activity at bay.
  12. Resistance — The life cycle of HIV is about a day and a half. During that time it will enter a cell, change the host cell DNA, create copies of itself and release those copies into the blood stream to infect other cells. When the HIV is making copies of itself, it lacks a common proofreading enzyme. This encourages copying mistakes. These mistakes are called mutations. The combination of a short life cycle and high error rate causes HIV to mutate very rapidly. This results in a great genetic variance among HIV. Most of the copying errors will convey no advantage to the mutant. But some errors will result in advantages that make the mutant insensitive to the current ARVs used. This will give that mutant a survival advantage allowing it to give rise to a generation of resistant viruses.
  13. Vaccine — A vaccine is created from compounds that can help the body recognize and destroy pathogens such as bacteria or viruses. The vaccine stimulates an immune system response to the threat. No vaccine for HIV is available today, but there are several ongoing studies around the world working to find one. The possibility of ever producing a vaccine is questioned by many due to HIV’s high mutation rate.
  14. Transmission — Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and viruses within infected immune cells. The three major routes of transmission are unprotected sexual intercourse, contaminated needles and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth, or through breast milk.

Versi Melayu

  1. Pathogen – Ejen biologi yang menyebabkan penyakit atau penyakit kepada organisma tuan rumah. Patogen yang paling biasa untuk menjejaskan manusia adalah bakteria (mis. Salmonella), virus (mis. Influenza), protozoa (mis. Malaria), kulat (contohnya yis), dan parasit (cth.
  2. Virus – Tidak seperti bakteria, virus tidak dapat membiak sendiri. Ia mesti masuk ke dalam sel tuan rumah dan merampas sistemnya untuk melakukannya. Sesetengah virus boleh wujud di dalam badan dalam keadaan tidak aktif di mana ia menghasilkan semula pada tahap yang rendah yang menyebabkan sedikit gejala klinikal. Virus yang sama boleh bertukar kepada keadaan aktif yang ditandai dengan pembiakan yang agresif dalam susunan berbilion virus virus setiap hari. Walaupun banyak ubat-ubatan wujud untuk membunuh bakteria (antibiotik), ubat-ubatan antiviral sangat sedikit diketahui.
  3. HIV – Akronim untuk virus immunodeficiency manusia. Seperti selesema atau hepatitis, ia adalah virus yang menjangkiti manusia. HIV adalah luar biasa dalam tiga cara: (1) ia mensasarkan terutamanya sel-sel sistem imun tertentu, (2) ia mematikan kepada sel tuan rumah dan (3) ia bermutasi sangat cepat.
  4. Jenis subtipe HIV dan CRF – HIV bukan hanya satu virus, ia boleh dibahagikan kepada dua jenis utama, HIV-1 dan HIV-2. Virus HIV-1 mungkin dibahagikan kepada empat kumpulan, M, N, O dan P. Virus kumpulan HIV-1 M adalah yang paling biasa, dan telah menyebabkan lebih daripada 90% daripada semua jangkitan HIV yang diketahui. Kumpulan M boleh dibahagikan lagi kepada subtipe dan bentuk rekombinan beredar (CRF). Terdapat sembilan subjek M kumpulan dan lebih daripada 50 CRF yang diketahui hari ini. Oleh kerana virus terus menyebar dan bermutasi, subtipe baru dan CRF akan muncul.
  5. Sistem imun – Sistem imun manusia mempunyai tiga pertahanan utama: fizikal, bawaan dan penyesuaian. Halangan fizikal seperti membran kulit dan mukus menyimpan patogen dari memasuki tubuh di tempat pertama. Mereka adalah barisan pertahanan pertama. Sekiranya patogen melanggar halangan ini maka sistem imun yang semula jadi memberikan tindak balas segera tetapi tidak seperti keradangan dan demam. Sekiranya penceroboh itu bertahan dengan tindak balas semula jadi maka sistem penyesuaian akan mula mengkaji patogen sepanjang jangkitan untuk mencari titik lemah dan menghapuskannya. Ia akan menggunakan memori imunologi untuk mengenal pasti patogen ini apabila ia kembali dan melancarkan serangan yang lebih cepat dan lebih kuat terhadapnya.
  6. T-sel – Banyak jenis sel yang terlibat dalam tindak balas imun. Satu kumpulan sel yang penting untuk sistem imun dipanggil sel T. T-sel adalah sejenis limfosit. Limfosit adalah sejenis sel darah putih. Terdapat beberapa jenis sel T yang berbeza, masing-masing memainkan peranan yang berbeza dalam tindak balas imun badan.
  7. Sel CD4 – Jenis sel T, juga dikenali sebagai “Sel T Helper.” Helper sel T mengatur kedua-dua tindak balas imun yang semula jadi dan adaptif dan membantu menentukan jenis tindak balas imun yang akan dibuat oleh tubuh ke patogen tertentu. Sel-sel ini tidak membunuh sel-sel yang dijangkiti atau patogen secara langsung. Sebaliknya, mereka adalah otak operasi, mengawal tindak balas imun dengan mengarahkan sel lain untuk melaksanakan tugas-tugas ini. Sekiranya sel-sel CD4 hilang, tubuh akan menjadi lemah kerana sel-sel sistem lain tidak akan tahu apa yang perlu dilakukan. HIV terutamanya mensasarkan sel CD4. Virus ini masuk ke dalam sel dan menggunakannya untuk menghasilkan lebih banyak virus sebelum memusnahkan tuan rumahnya. Apabila HIV aktif, kesan eksponen berlaku. Ia hanya satu masa sahaja sebelum penduduk CD4 diberikan kepada tahap yang rendah bahawa mereka benar-benar tidak berkesan. Infeksi HIV membawa kepada tahap sel CD4 yang rendah melalui tiga mekanisme utama: 1) virus membunuh sel hosnya secara langsung; 2) peningkatan kadar pemusnahan diri (apoptosis) dalam sel yang dijangkiti; Dan 3) pembunuhan sel-sel CD4 yang dijangkiti oleh sel imun (limfosit CD8) yang mengiktiraf dan membunuh sel yang dijangkiti.
  8. Kiraan CD4 – Mengukur jumlah sel T CD4 dalam darah untuk mengukur kekuatan sistem imun dengan adanya jangkitan HIV. CD4 telah menjadi petunjuk utama doktor telah digunakan untuk memantau keadaan keseluruhan sistem imun pesakit. Ujian biasanya mudah dilakukan dan agak murah untuk mentadbir yang telah menyebabkan kegunaannya meluas. Ujian ini mempunyai dua batasan utama yang berkaitan dengan pengurusan HIV. Terdapat banyak faktor, selain aktiviti HIV, yang menjejaskan jumlah sel T CD4 yang hadir dalam darah pada suatu masa tertentu. Oleh itu, doktor tidak dapat memastikan jika nilai CD4 disebabkan oleh aktiviti HIV atau faktor lain. Kedua, boleh mengambil masa sehingga 6 bulan untuk aktiviti HIV dapat dilihat dalam kiraan CD4.
  9. Beban Viral – Walaupun CD4 mengukur tindak balas badan terhadap virus, beban virus mengukur jumlah zarah virus dalam darah secara langsung. Pengukuran biasanya dinyatakan dalam bilangan salinan RNA bagi setiap mililiter darah. Virus viral yang rendah biasanya antara 200 hingga 500 naskhah, bergantung kepada jenis ujian yang digunakan. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahawa HIV tidak secara aktif mengeluarkan semula dan bahawa risiko segera perkembangan penyakit adalah rendah kerana HIV berada dalam keadaan tidak aktif. Beban virus yang tinggi boleh berada di mana saja dari 5,000 hingga 10,000 salinan dan boleh berkisar setinggi satu juta atau lebih. Ini bermakna virus itu aktif dan penyakit itu akan berkembang. Ujian viral load adalah penunjuk yang lebih dipercayai aktiviti viral daripada ujian CD4 dan penunjuk penyakit yang lebih dipercayai. Secara bersejarah, ujian itu mempunyai satu kelemahan utama: Walaupun satu-satunya rawatan dalam negara maju, ia lebih sukar dilakukan dalam tetapan terhad sumber – peralatan uji halus memerlukan syarat-syarat makmal yang jarang berlaku di klinik yang di resourcelimited.
  10. AIDS – Apabila HIV telah menurunkan jumlah CD4 T-Cell seseorang kurang daripada 200 sel / μl (menjadikan perkadaran CD4 T-Sel kepada limfosit lain di bawah 14%) maka sistem imun seseorang dianggap tidak mampu meningkatkan ketahanan Pertahanan terhadap patogen yang menyerang. Orang yang dijangkiti HIV dalam kedudukan ini diklasifikasi secara medis kerana telah memperoleh sindrom imunodefisiensi (AIDS). AIDS adalah permainan akhir jangkitan HIV. Sama seperti virus membunuh sel CD4 tuan rumah, penyakit ini menghilangkan organisma tuan rumah dengan meninggalkannya sepenuhnya terdedah kepada berjuta-juta patogen yang menyerang badan setiap hari. Apabila pesakit HIV mendapat tahap ketahanan imunologi ini, mereka biasanya akan mati akibat jangkitan ostektomi atau tumor dalam masa 9.2 bulan jika tidak dirawat.
  11. ARV – Suatu akronim yang bermaksud ubat antiretroviral. Ini adalah ubat-ubatan yang digunakan untuk menguruskan jangkitan HIV. Walaupun tiada ubat untuk HIV, ubat-ubatan ini telah berjaya memperlahankan perkembangan penyakit ini dengan mengganggu virus pada tahap yang berbeza dalam perkembangannya. Terdapat lebih daripada dua puluh ARV di pasaran hari ini, tetapi hanya segelintir ini tersedia untuk pesakit di negara-negara membangun. Di kebanyakan negara-negara ini, terdapat dua kombinasi utama ubat yang diberikan kepada pesakit, yang dirujuk sebagai rawatan baris pertama dan kedua. Ubat-ubatan yang digunakan dalam rawatan baris kedua adalah sekitar lapan kali lebih mahal daripada rawatan baris pertama – pertimbangan penting dalam persekitaran terhad sumber. Hari ini, logik yang berlaku adalah untuk memulakan rawatan ARV pertama sebaik sahaja HIV menjadi aktif, yang boleh beberapa tahun dari masa jangkitan. Untuk mengelakkan pencabulan dan penyebaran strain HIV, lebih baik disarankan untuk menghentikan rawatan ARV pertama sebaik sahaja pesakit berhenti bertindak balas dan beralih ke baris kedua. Akhirnya ini juga akan gagal kerana virus ini akan menimbulkan ketahanan terhadap rawatan baris kedua. Bagi kebanyakan pesakit dalam tetapan terhad sumber, sebaik sahaja titik ini dijangkakan tiada rawatan lanjut boleh didapati untuk memegang aktiviti HIV.
  12. Rintangan – Siklus hidup HIV adalah kira-kira satu setengah hari. Pada masa itu ia akan memasuki sel, menukar DNA sel tuan rumah, membuat salinan sendiri dan melepaskan salinan tersebut ke dalam aliran darah untuk menjangkiti sel-sel lain. Apabila HIV membuat salinannya sendiri, ia tidak mempunyai enzim pembacaan bukti biasa. Ini menggalakkan menyalin kesilapan. Kesalahan ini dipanggil mutasi. Gabungan kitaran hayat pendek dan kadar kesilapan yang tinggi menyebabkan HIV bermutasi sangat cepat. Ini menyebabkan variasi genetik yang hebat di kalangan HIV. Kebanyakan kesilapan penyalinan tidak akan memberi kelebihan kepada mutan tersebut. Tetapi beberapa kesalahan akan menghasilkan kelebihan yang menjadikan mutan tidak sensitif kepada ARV semasa yang digunakan. Ini akan memberikan mutan itu kelebihan kelangsungan hidup yang membolehkannya menimbulkan generasi virus yang tahan.
  13. Vaksin – Vaksin dibuat dari sebatian yang boleh membantu tubuh mengenali dan memusnahkan patogen seperti bakteria atau virus. Vaksin merangsang respon sistem imun terhadap ancaman. Tiada vaksin untuk HIV boleh didapati hari ini, tetapi terdapat beberapa kajian berterusan di seluruh dunia yang bekerja untuk mencari satu. Kemungkinan menghasilkan vaksin akan dipersoalkan oleh ramai kerana kadar mutasi tinggi HIV.
  14. Transmisi – Jangkitan dengan HIV berlaku melalui pemindahan darah, air mani, cairan vagina, pra-ejakulasi, atau susu ibu. Dalam cecair badan ini, HIV hadir sebagai kedua-dua zarah virus percuma dan virus dalam sel imun yang dijangkiti. Tiga laluan penularan utama adalah hubungan seks tanpa perlindungan, jarum yang tercemar dan penghantaran dari ibu yang dijangkiti kepada bayinya pada saat lahir, atau melalui susu ibu.


Excellent Quality Macherey Nagel pH Test Strips

Macherey Nagel has the best quality pH test paper compare to other brands. Which is why it’s mostly use for commercial industries for testing. Now, individual can purchase this brand Macherey Nagel pH Test Strips from our online shop for home testing. What test you can perform with this pH Test? Are you curious about your coffee drink or tea? Is this beverages acidic or alkaline and what’s they value?

Are you currently on a diet? Are you always sick? Acidic or alkaline of these drinks can effect your health.

With pH-Fix test strips, you can test the pH value quickly and easily directly at the point of interest. The strips are ready to use at any time and don’t need any calibration, set-up or maintenance. Therefore, pH determination with pH test strips is very easy, regardless of your experience or chemical background.

Why not digital pH test for solution test?

Many prefer the more precise digital pH test over pH paper test because it give you a very precise value. But many do not know that this steel electrode which you use in digital will interfere with the value because of chemical reaction with the solution and for each test you need special solution to clean the electrode or it will gives false value.

That is why paper pH Test Strips Macherey Nagel brand does the work better to provide more ACCURATE ph value for your test.

Safe analysis by long plastic handle

The long plastic handle safely protects you from coming into contact with the sample. Thus, testing toxic, dangerous or aggressive substances is safely possible.

Several test pads for exact results

pH indicator test strips feature up to 4 different indicator pads that cover the whole pH range from 0–14. You can chose from a total of 14 different measuring ranges to find the ideal strip for your application. The brilliant color scale is optimally matched and aligned to the test pads on the strips, resulting in quick, easy and safe pH determination.

No bleeding due to color bounded indicator dyes

In contrast to common indicator papers, the indicator dyes in pH-Fix test strips are chemically bound to the test pads. This patented technology safely prevents bleeding of dyes into the sample, even in highly alkaline solutions. Your sample is not contaminated by indicator dyes. Consequently, you can use the solution for further analysis.

The special non-bleeding technology provides additional benefits for you:

• Even in weakly buffered solutions, a safe and reliable pH determination becomes possible,
as the strips can be immersed for a long time until the final reaction color has developed

• The colors of the individual test pads don’t bleed and mix, which assures exact comparison
to the color scale

• Your sample is not contaminated by indicator dyes



Difference between THC Blood vs Urine THC Drug Test

The difference between THC Blood vs Urine THC Drug Test is in cost. Testing THC in blood test will only tells you about THC that’s recently consumed, and is incapable of revealing consistent use. Urine testing, however, is far more likely to tell you if a person has consumed cannabis.

In all seriousness, blood testing has some major downfalls. It’s costly, it only tells you about THC that’s been recently consumed, and is incapable of revealing consistent use. Urine testing, however, is far more likely to tell you if a person has consumed cannabis.

After you inhale some smoke or vapor, THC course through the blood streams and works it’s way into fat cells. This is why cannabis is notorious for taking an unbelievably long amount of time to get out of your system.

THC is re-released into your body as you burn through fat cells. For occasional users, the half-life of THC is thought to be around 1.3 days. For heavy users, the half-life can last as long as 5 to 13 days. In the medical world, “half-life” is the time it takes the body to get rid of half of a dose of medication.

Urine testing looks for the presence of THC metabolites rather than THC itself. While a blood test can detect cannabis use for a maximum of about 7 days after consuming, your urine may test positive for THC for as long as 100 days. It really depends on how much you consume and how often.

If you only use the herb every once in a while, chances are it will be out of your blood within one full day and urine within one to two weeks. Heavy users can expect THC or THC metabolites to hang around for much longer.


Importance of Ketone Strip Test

When the body has insufficient insulin, it cannot get glucose from the blood into the body’s cells to use as energy and will instead begin to burn fat. The liver converts fatty acids into ketones which are then released into the bloodstream for use as energy. Ketones are a by-product of fat breakdown, and high levels can be toxic. Ketone testing strips check for the presence in urine of one type of ketone, called acetoacetic acid.

This can occur when people with type 1 diabetes don’t take insulin for long periods of time, when insulin pumps fail to deliver insulin and the wearer does not monitor blood glucose, or during serious illness (in type 1 or type 2) when insulin doses are missed or not increased appropriately for the stress of illness.

Ketones can happen to anyone with diabetes, but the condition is more common in people with type 1.

Ketones upset the chemical balance of your blood and, if left untreated, can poison the body.



Early detection prevent AIDS death toll

Below graph showing the number of people who die from AIDS have reduce dramatically by half since 2005. This is because early detection and early antiviral HIV medications helps to prevent HIV from blooming into AIDS, thus preventing death.