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HIV

Panduan Ujian HIV untuk Bakal Pengantin

Akad nikah adalah mudah dan saat paling bahagia dalam hidup anda dan bakal isteri. TAPI adakah anda betul-betul bersedia untuk saat itu?

Kalau ditanya kepada setiap insan, adakah anda akan berkahwin? Jawapannya sudah tentu ya, dan mungkin ketika ini ada yang sedang dilamun cinta, ada yang sudah bertunang dan akan melangsungkan perkahwinan mereka tidak lama lagi. Bagi anda yang akan melangsungkan perkahwinan, tahniah saya ucapkan. Tetapi…

Adakah anda mahu sebelum majlis perkahwinan anda khususnya majlis akad nikah, mak dan bapa mertua anda ataupun isteri anda / suami anda mengetahui status HIV anda? Anda pun tidak pasti sama ada anda kena HIV ataupun tidak. Bayangkan, kalau result test HIV positive, isteri anda dapat tahu? Macam mana?

Saya rasa anda pasti nak jawapan secepat mungkin sebelum test di klinik kerajaan. Tak la surprise semua orang. Kerana jika peristiwa memalukan ini berlaku, ia akan kekal disebut saudara mara dan masyarakat.

Rugilah jika peristiwa yang berlaku cuma sekali seumur hidup ini ada insiden-insiden yang tidak disengajakan serta memalukan anda dan keluarga anda. Fikir-fikirkan…

Dapatkan jawapan secepat mungkin dapatlah anda relax sikit masa ambil ujian dengan bakal isteri / suami anda di klinik nanti.

 

Borang Ujian Saringan HIV

1.  Bakal pengantin boleh mendapatkan borang ujian saringan HIV di Jabatan  Agama Islam berhampiran anda.
2.  Bayaran RM10 dikenakan bagi setiap permohonan Ujian Saringan HIV.  (Bayaran adalah berbeza mengikut negeri)
3.  Borang Ujian Saringan HIV hendaklan dilengkapkan dan dibawa ke klinik  kesihatan yang telah disenaraikan bagi menjalani Ujian HIV 1 & 2.

 

Ujian Saringan HIV Di Klinik Kesihatan Kerajaan

1.  Bakal pengantin hendaklah hadir ke klinik kesihatan yang disenaraikan dengan membawa Borang Ujian Saringan beserta resit.
2.  Sekiranya keputusan ujian TIDAK AKTIF, bakal pengantin boleh meneruskan proses permohonan berkahwin.
3.  Sekiranya keputusan adalah AKTIF, pemohon perlu menjalani ujian lanjut bagi pengesahan HIV. Keputusan ujian dikeluarkan dalam masa 2 minggu.
4.  Pegawai perubatan akan mencatat keputusan dalam borang dan dimasukkan dalam sampul surat SULIT untuk diserahkan kepada bakal pengantin.
5.  Setiap kes HIV POSITIF, perlu dirujuk kepada Pakar Perubatan Keluarga atau Klinik Penyakit Berjangkit.
6.  Keputusan tersebut sah laku dalam tempoh 6 bulan dari tarikh ujian dijalankan.

Permohonan Kebenaran Berkahwin Di Jabatan Agama Islam

1.  Permohonan Kebenaran Berkahwin yang telah mendapat pengesahan dari Penolong Pendaftar hendaklah dihantar semula ke Jabatan Agama Islam di tempat masing-masing bersama dengan keputusan Ujian Saringan HIV yang telah disahkan oleh Pegawai Perubatan Kerajaan.
2.  Sekiranya keputusan ujian adalah NEGATIF, proses permohonan kebenaran berkahwin akan diteruskan.
3.  Sekiranya keputusan HIV adalah POSITIF, maka:
a)  Pemohon perlu menjalani sesi khidmat nasihat di Jabatan Agama sebelum meneruskan permohonan kebenaran berkahwin.
b)  Pemohon, pasangan dan keluarga akan diberi pendedahan tentang implikasi HIV.
c)  Pemohon dan pasangan akan diminta membuat keputusan sama ada mahu meneruskan perkahwinan atau sebaliknya.
d)  Sekiranya pemohon dan pasangan membuat keputusan untuk meneruskan perkahwinan, maka permohonan kebenaran berkahwin akan diproses.
e)  Pemohon dan pasangan perlu merujuk kepada Pakar Perubatan Keluarga dan Klinik Penyakit Berjangkit untuk penjagaan kesihatan seterusnya.

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HIV

“gender confusion (dysphoria) leads to increase HIV

Do you agree that gender confusion (dysphoria) will lead to more men to men sex that leads to an increase in HIV among Malaysian?

Personally, i don’t think gender confusion is the reason for men who like other men.

It’s really hard to explain, but when deep down you’re really sure you’re a certain gender, then it’s true because you’re you.

According to MOH Ministry of Health Malaysia, recorded a 2.5 fold increase accounting for 84 percent of new HIV infections compare to last year 32 person in 2006.

Our government has been working hard to reduce new HIV infection and plans to end AIDS by the year 2030. Is this possible? Well, personally i don’t think so, unless in medical industry, a magic pill discover.

Or just to be on the safe side, wear a condom. It could prevent one from HIV as well as other sexual infection diseases.

Know your partner well, get a HIV self test kit and test before married, before involve in any sexual act.

This is the most safest way to ensure you’re not affected.

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HIV

HIV Attacks your T-Cells

Do you know how HIV Virus does in your body?
Check yourself now and prevent this nasty virus from attacking your good cells.

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HIV

Several early symptoms of AIDS

AIDS is a deadly disease called human immunodeficiency virus infection, in the patient’s blood, semen, saliva, tears can be found in the virus. This virus is mainly transmitted through sexual contact, especially male homosexual contact is the main mode of transmission of the disease, sexual contact between the opposite sex, the input of infected blood and blood products, mucosal contact with contaminated blood, organ transplantation, breastfeeding Is also an important route of transmission. In our country is currently the main heterosexual contact and intravenous drug use as the main route of transmission.

When the patient had any unexplained symptoms, health care workers should think of the possibility of AIDS? Here are some of the symptoms we can see as “Sentinel Symptoms”:

 1, fatigue, weight loss

AIDS sufferers often feel tired and so hard to get up early in the morning. Hair also feel very difficult. Night fever and sweating and lead to weight loss. Gingival swelling and pain, bad appetite, anorexia, the last patient skinny, showing skeletal state.

2, diarrhea

Patients with unexplained watery diarrhea, which means that patients lose their ability to absorb vitamins in food. Physical decline, resistance gradually weakened, until the last complete loss of resistance.

3, oral inflammation

Patients with thrush, mouth and tongue for a layer of thick white fur cover (sometimes also extended to the esophagus), eating difficulties.

 4, herpes

AIDS patients with herpes herpes. Compared with ordinary herpes position is relatively deep, the scope is larger, and the pain is particularly intense. Herpes are often months old.

5, lymph nodes

The patient’s neck and armpit or groin appear lumps, but no pain. Most people easily think of this disease mistaken for infectious mononucleosis syndrome. But the mononucleosis syndrome is softer and painful. This initial illness shows that AIDS is destroying the body’s immune cells.

6, pneumonia

This is a specific lethal pneumonia, is one of the main causes of death of AIDS patients, namely, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the patient was suddenly rapid onset of dyspnea, can quickly lead to death.

7, skin disease

Kappa’s sarcoma This rare skin cancer now has a fatal impact on 30% of AIDS patients. The initial symptoms of the disease is the skin suddenly a subtle purple spots, the spots have emerged. In a period of time, the spots can be increased to 13, but the patient without pain.

8, lymphoma

Cancer spread to the lymphatic system, it will quickly spread throughout the body, lymph nodes, causing the cancer of this virus is caused by infectious mononucleosis virus caused by. At this point, for healthy people is a slight infection, can also be a fatal factor in AIDS.

9, aging

Another sign of AIDS is dementia syndrome. The memory of the recession, character weird, these are the physiological changes in the elderly, right in the twenties and thirties of AIDS patients who occurred. Suffering from mental changes, can not control their own, energy failure.

 AIDS three diet principles

  1, AIDS patients should pay attention to nutrition

HIV-infected patients and patients in the drug treatment at the same time, should also be actively nutritional support. The main purpose of nutritional support is to promote the body protein synthesis, for the recovery of human immune function to provide the necessary nutrition, storage of energy, to maintain human organ function. In a sense, nutritional support plays an adjuvant role in improving the quality of life of people living with HIV / AIDS and patients.

Beetroot, spinach, garlic and olive oil are common but the food, but these foods together after processing has become a treatable AIDS drugs. South Africa in recent years, the application results show that this diet does improve the immunity of AIDS has a significant role.

2, boiled raw, cold, greasy diarrhea

Chronic diarrhea is a common complication of AIDS and is a major contributor to a reduction in body weight, while weight loss has a significantly shorter survival time than patients with normal body weight. Therefore, to reduce diarrhea, improve food absorption rate, to maintain the normal weight of the patient is necessary. AIDS patients to prevent diarrhea should eat some low-fat foods, daily intake of fat in about 40g, do not eat too much, difficult to digest will increase diarrhea.

To supplement vitamins and minerals. If the number of diarrhea more, try to eat less vegetables and fruits, fresh fruit juice, tomato juice and other vitamin supplements. Add plenty of water and rich in potassium ions of food, because diarrhea can cause dehydration, drink 3 to 4 glasses of water than usual. To add more foods rich in potassium ions such as bananas, potatoes, fish and meat. There are some foods to help diarrhea, such as white rice, boiled white noodles, white bread and so on. If you produce flatulence, the beans do not eat food.

3, nausea and vomiting should be on time meal

Infection and drugs can cause vomiting nausea, land director stressed that can not do not want to eat do not eat. Eating or not eating will only make the situation worse. This time you can let the doctor cure nausea and vomiting drugs, half an hour before eating orally. A small amount of low-fat foods can prevent nausea and vomiting. Try to eat dry food, such as bread dry, bread dry, biscuits, etc .; eat salty food, do not eat sweets. Drink soup. Do not lie down immediately after a meal, preferably every hour, if you feel tired, can lie half.

Categories
HIV

How long for test strips to conclude results hiv

Some time ago to play, no wear sets, after a few days, who was a red pimple, diarrhea, I am afraid, I would like to ask, this test paper accurate, how long can rule out the infection?

AIDS test strip is more accurate, is a lot of disease control, top three, emergency center, blood pool commonly used detection reagents, convenient, safe and accurate is its characteristics, but the best use of imported test paper, so the accuracy of protection.

On how long exclusion, SD4 test paper 2 weeks can be detected, because the general 2 weeks will produce antigens, 4 weeks can be ruled out, 3 generations of Abbott and Aibo 4 weeks can be detected, because the average person 4 weeks to produce antibodies, 6 Zhou can be basically ruled out, the current international authority is 6 weeks to exclude, but the disease is different from other diseases, we generally recommend 3 months and then test once, but for the full after all plus million, in fact, their own and family are good.

4 on behalf of the SD test paper: 1 week to exclude about 75%, 2 weeks to exclude about 85%, 3 weeks to exclude about 95%, 4 weeks to exclude about 99%, generally 4 weeks Yin no problem.
AIDS 3 generations of test paper detection time exclusion rate:
1 week to detect the
probability of antibody : 22.6%  2 weeks to detect the probability of antibody: 53.775%
3 weeks to detect the probability of antibodies: 53-84.1%
4 weeks to detect the probability  of antibody: 84.1 % 99.94%
5 weeks The probability of detecting the antibody: 99.45%
6 weeks The probability of detecting  the antibody: 99.994%
7 weeks The probability of detecting the antibody: 99.99986%
8 weeks The probability of detecting  the antibody: 99.999999979% The
antibody was checked for 3 months Of the probability: 100%

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HIV

Early symptoms of AIDS: fatigue, fatigue!

Fatigue is the common symptoms of AIDS early, because the infection of HIV, will increase the consumption, the patient often feel fatigue fatigue, serious time, may stand, even a glass of water feel difficult.

Fatigue fatigue can adversely affect work and study, so it is necessary to understand the causes of fatigue and mitigation.

The reason 

For fatigue is less than 3 weeks after high-risk behavior, then this may be a dangerous signal, should consider whether the infection of HIV, and arrange for HIV testing. In addition, depression, lack of rest, anemia can also cause fatigue fatigue.

Mitigating Fatigue The fatigue
caused by HIV infection may persist for longer periods of time, typically one month or longer. During this period should strengthen nutrition, pay attention to rest.

Due to other causes of fatigue, should always exercise to increase antibody.
If you are tired and pale, you should improve your diet.
In the early stages of infection with HIV infection may be fatigue, fatigue, but fatigue, fatigue symptoms do not mean that is infected with AIDS, may also have other diseases, do not appear symptoms to worry about infected with AIDS, increase their fear, AIDS testing Prevail.

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HIV

Skin Rashes in HIV Symptoms

The skin is the first protective barrier of the human body, the skin will complete those bacteria, viruses, parasites, etc. block on the outside of the body, preventing human illness. When the body’s skin damage, then the virus outside ah, ah bacteria will swoop, cause damage to the human body. AIDS is a complex disease, when the body is infected with the AIDS virus that only attacks lymphocytes, it will also allow us to produce skin lesions, redness, itching, purulent and so on.

The following explain in detail the six AIDS patients skin lesions:

(1) herpes simplex blisters appear around the anus and rectum, warts newborn found in parts of the hands, feet and a long beard.

(2) Foot serious fungal infections phenomenon.

(3) skin inflammation, swelling, blisters, and accompanied by bacterial infections such as impetigo skin, typical performance is the emergence of the mouth and nose around a porphyritic tiny blisters.

(4) appeared in the armpits and other parts folliculitis.

(5) severe seborrheic dermatitis on the face, scalp and body skin oily scales appear serious.

(6) serious xeroderma or young man suddenly appeared similar to the old man’s skin.

Although these skin lesions are the early symptoms of HIV infection, but not all of these symptoms who are infected with AIDS. If you have a recent high-risk behavior susceptible to HIV, such as unclean sexual intercourse, and others were a syringe, or have entered the blood of unknown origin, at a time when your body and skin lesions appeared above, then you AIDS detection test paper will be carried out to see if infected with AIDS.

In fact, the majority of HIV AIDS in the early stages of infection will not develop any symptoms, and only a small number of infected people appear precancerous condition, of course, the early symptoms of AIDS is not just only skin lesions, there will be oral lesions, flu-like disease and so on, so we should pay attention to skin lesions in addition, also pay attention to other disease, early detection, early testing, early peace of mind.

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HIV

What is HIV?

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Unlike some other viruses, the human body cannot get rid of HIV. That means that once you have HIV, you have it for life.

No safe and effective cure currently exists, but scientists are working hard to find one, and remain hopeful. Meanwhile, with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Treatment for HIV is often called antiretroviral therapy or ART. It can dramatically prolong the lives of many people infected with HIV and lower their chance of infecting others. Before the introduction of ART in the mid-1990s, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Today, someone diagnosed with HIV and treated before the disease is far advanced can have a nearly normal life expectancy.
HIV affects specific cells of the immune system, called CD4 cells, or T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. When this happens, HIV infection leads to AIDS.

Where did HIV come from?

Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as the late 1800s. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s.

What are the stages of HIV?

HIV disease has a well-documented progression. Untreated, HIV is almost universally fatal because it eventually overwhelms the immune system—resulting in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV treatment helps people at all stages of the disease, and treatment can slow or prevent progression from one stage to the next.
A person can transmit HIV to others during any of these stages:
Acute infection: Within 2 to 4 weeks after infection with HIV, you may feel sick with flu-like symptoms. This is called acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) or primary HIV infection, and it’s the body’s natural response to the HIV infection. (Not everyone develops ARS, however—and some people may have no symptoms.)
During this period of infection, large amounts of HIV are being produced in your body. The virus uses important immune system cells called CD4 cells to make copies of itself and destroys these cells in the process. Because of this, the CD4 count can fall quickly.
Your ability to spread HIV is highest during this stage because the amount of virus in the blood is very high.
Eventually, your immune response will begin to bring the amount of virus in your body back down to a stable level. At this point, your CD4 count will then begin to increase, but it may not return to pre-infection levels.
Clinical latency (inactivity or dormancy): This period is sometimes called asymptomatic HIV infection or chronic HIV infection. During this phase, HIV is still active, but reproduces at very low levels. You may not have any symptoms or get sick during this time. People who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may live with clinical latency for several decades. For people who are not on ART, this period can last up to a decade, but some may progress through this phase faster. It is important to remember that you are still able to transmit HIV to others during this phase even if you are treated with ART, although ART greatly reduces the risk. Toward the middle and end of this period, your viral load begins to rise and your CD4 cell count begins to drop. As this happens, you may begin to have symptoms of HIV infection as your immune system becomes too weak to protect you .
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome): This is the stage of infection that occurs when your immune system is badly damaged and you become vulnerable to infections and infection-related cancers called opportunistic illnesses. When the number of your CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (200 cells/mm3), you are considered to have progressed to AIDS. (Normal CD4 counts are between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.) You can also be diagnosed with AIDS if you develop one or more opportunistic illnesses, regardless of your CD4 count. Without treatment, people who are diagnosed with AIDS typically survive about 3 years. Once someone has a dangerous opportunistic illness, life expectancy without treatment falls to about 1 year. People with AIDS need medical treatment to prevent death.

How can I tell if I’m infected with HIV?

The only way to know if you are infected with HIV is to be tested. You cannot rely on symptoms to know whether you have HIV. Many people who are infected with HIV do not have any symptoms at all for 10 years or more. Some people who are infected with HIV report having flu-like symptoms (often described as “the worst flu ever”) 2 to 4 weeks after exposure. Symptoms can include: Fever, Enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat and rashes.
These symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. During this time, HIV infection may not show up on an HIV test, but people who have it are highly infectious and can spread the infection to others.
However, you should not assume you have HIV if you have any of these symptoms. Each of these symptoms can be caused by other illnesses. Again, the only way to determine whether you are infected is to be tested for HIV infection.
Two types of home testing kits are available: one involves pricking your finger for a blood sample and reading the results in 15 minutes. The other involves getting a swab of fluid from your mouth, using the kit to test it, and reading the results in 20 minutes.
If you test positive for HIV, you should see your doctor as soon as possible to begin treatment.

Is there a cure for HIV?

For most people, the answer is no. Most reports of a cure involve HIV-infected people who needed treatment for a cancer that would have killed them otherwise. But these treatments are very risky, even life-threatening, and are used only when the HIV-infected people would have died without them. Antiretroviral therapy (ART), however, can dramatically prolong the lives of many people infected with HIV and lower their chance of infecting others. It is important that people get tested for HIV and know that they are infected early so that medical care and treatment have the greatest effect.
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HIV

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HIV

Early Stage Symptoms of HIV

What Do I Need to Know About Early HIV Symptoms?

When the HIV virus first enters your body, you may experience a short ‘flu-like’ illness.
This is known as the ‘seroconversion illness,’ and it occurs because your blood is being converted from HIV negative to HIV positive by the production of antibodies.
Everybody infected with HIV will seroconvert at some stage, but only about 80% of patients will notice any symptoms.
Seroconversion usually occurs 1 – 3 weeks after infection, but could take up to 6 months.

Common Early Symptoms – Fever, Chills and Sore Throat

The most common early signs are ‘flu like’ symptoms that you’d expect from most 24-hour bugs.
You’ll probably start with a high fever, chills and sweats which may be accompanied by a sore throat and mouth ulcers.
You may find it difficult to chew or eat, which can cause rapid weight loss.
You may develop a severe headache, have difficulty concentrating and feel weak and unsteady on your feet.

Swollen Lymph Nodes

Swollen lymph nodes can appear early on in seroconversion and last for a few weeks or more. After disappearing, they will probably return later on in infection and last for 3 months or more.
Infected nodes usually appear in the neck, armpits and groin area.
They may be slightly enlarged or as large as golf balls during HIV infection. They are also usually tender and painful to touch.

Joint and Muscle Pain

People with this infection often complain about severe muscle/joint aches or stiffness. This, accompanied by recent HIV risk behaviour, could be a possible symptom of HIV.
Severe joint and muscle pain can add to any existing feelings of fatigue, leaving you feeling exhausted.

Face or Body Rash

Many people experience a ‘maculopapular rash’ (a flat, red skin rash that’s covered in raised bumps) in the early stages of HIV infection.
The rash can appear anywhere on the body, but it will mostly be found on the face, chest and palms.
It will probably last for about 2-3 weeks and should not itch or be irritating in any way.
The rash may appear as ulcers in the mouth or on the genitals.

Diarrhoea and Vomiting

Diarrhoea and vomiting during seroconversion illness is rarer, but it’s still an early sign of HIV infection.

How Long Do the Early Symptoms of HIV Last?

It depends on the person. It can last from 1 – 6 weeks or it could not occur at all!
You might suffer intense initial symptoms for about a week, and then just feel severely fatigued for the rest of the month, or you might be experiencing symptoms all the way through.

What Should I Do If I Notice Symptoms?

If you do start noticing any of the early symptoms of HIV, and you have put yourself at risk of HIV infection then you need to get a HIV Test.
You need to wait for a sufficient number of antibodies to build up in your system for an accurate result. This takes about 1 – 3 months.