Helicobacter pylori, also known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. It is present in approximately one-half of the world’s population.
The vast majority of people infected with H. pylori has no symptoms and will never develop problems. However, H. pylori is capable of causing a number of digestive problems, including peptic ulcers and, much less commonly, stomach cancer. It is not clear why some people with H. pylori get these conditions and others do not.
To protect yourself from developing stomach ulcers, check your partner for belching, burping, burning in the stomach that gets more severe when the person is hungry and better after eating, a white-coated tongue, a chronic sore throat, and mouth odor. Any person with these symptoms should get a blood test for helicobacter, and if positive, he or she should get an upper GI series X ray to rule out stomach cancer also caused by helicobacter. The person can be cured by taking three medications for just one week. We can now add helicobacter infections and stomach ulcers to the list of sexually transmitted diseases.
H. PYLORI SYMPTOMS
Most individuals with chronic gastritis or duodenitis have no symptoms. However, some people develop more serious problems, including stomach or duodenal ulcers.
Ulcers can cause a variety of symptoms or no symptoms at all, with the most common ulcer symptoms including:
●Pain or discomfort (usually in the upper abdomen)
●Feeling full after eating a small amount of food
●Lack of appetite
●Nausea or vomiting
●Dark or tar-colored stools
●Ulcers that bleed can cause a low blood count and fatigue
Less commonly, chronic gastritis causes abnormal changes in the stomach lining, which can lead to certain forms of cancer. It is uncommon to develop cancer as a result of H. pylori infection. Nevertheless, because so many people in the world are infected with H. pylori, it is considered to be an important cause of stomach cancer. People who live in countries in which H. pylori infection occurs at an early age are at greatest risk of stomach cancer
Most cases of H. pylori infection occur without any symptoms during childhood and are most commonly associated with poor sanitary hygiene — that is, not washing your hands thoroughly after using the toilet.
Is H Pylori Contagious From Person to Person?
“H. pylori is commonly transmitted person-to-person by saliva“
- The H Pylori Bacteria can be transmitted from person-to-person with close contact. Even minor family contact like a mother kissing her baby or sharing drinking glasses can transmit the bacteria. This means that if one person in the family gets an H pylori infection, then the rest of the family is certainly going to be exposes.
- Helicobacter pylori has been cultured from the saliva and mouth. Therefore, it may be possible to transmit H. pylori from an infected person’s mouth to the female vagina during oral-genital sex. Because H. pylori can survive on the squamous epithelium in the mouth, it may be possible for it to inhabit the squamous epithelium of the vaginal tract. Moreover, H. pylori may be able to colonize the vagina and survive in the mucus which envelopes the vaginal region. Further transmission can then occur via the vagina to the mouth of a non-infected male or female during additional oral-genital sexual encounters.
- Studies have reported that sexual behaviour may be important in the transmission of H. pylori such as feceal-oral transmission between male homosexuals.
HOW TO TEST
1. The reagent can be used for the serum, plasma and whole blood samples.
2. A serum / plasma / whole blood sample must be collected in a clean and dry container. EDTA, sodium citrate, sodium oxalate, heparin can be used as the anticoagulants. Detect immediately after collecting blood. If blood coagulation occurs, serum samples are suggested to use.
3. Samples may be stored at 2-8℃ for 1 week prior to assay, and at -20 ℃ for 2 years. Frozen refrigerated samples should be recovered to room temperature before detection and thoroughly mixed. Repeat freeze and thaw for no more than 3 times. Samples exhibiting visible precipitates, stinkor muddy should not be used. Centrifuged, filtered, or allowed to settle to obtain a clear sample for testing.
4. Use the fresh whole blood samples.
Instructions must be read entirely before taking the test. Allow the test device controls to equilibrate to room temperature for 30 minutes (20℃-30℃) prior to testing. Do not open the inner packaging until ready, it must be used in one hour if opened (Humidity: 20%~90%, Temp: 10℃-50℃)
1. Take off the outer packing, put the cassette onto the desk with the sample window up.
2. Open the alcohol pad, use the alcohol pad to disinfect the finger where to be prinked. (Note: Before blood collection, make sure the finger is clean and dry)
3. Open a lancet and prick the finger, collect blood with a pipette.
4. Serum / Plasma: Drop 1 drop (25μl) of serum or plasma vertically into the circular groove of cassette. Add about 2 drops ( 80μl-100μl) of sample buffer from the centrifuge tube with a pipette into the circular groove of cassette. Whole blood: Drop 2 drops (50μl) of whole blood vertically into the circular groove of cassette. Add about 2 drops of (80μl-100μl) sample buffer from the centrifuge tube with a pipette into the circular groove of cassette.
5. Observe the test results immediately within 15-20 minutes, the result is invalid over 20 minutes.
POSITIVE: Two distinct red lines appear. One line should be in the control region (C) and the other line should be in the test region (T).
NEGATIVE: One red line appears in the control region(C). No apparent red or pink line appears in the test region (T).
INVALID: No red lines appear or control line fails to appear, indicating that the operator error or reagent failure. Verify the test procedure and repeat the test with a new testing device.